This goal aims to assess the amount of protection provided by marine and coastal habitats against flooding and erosion to coastal areas that people value, both inhabited (homes and other structures) and uninhabited (parks, special places, etc.).
The current score indicates that although, in many places, these habitats (mangroves, salt marshes, coastal sea ice, coral reefs, and seagrasses) remain healthy and intact, the extents of all five habitats have been substantially reduced or degraded when compared to their reference years. The declines observed have occurred over only about three decades.
Since 2012, we have seen a modest decline in coastal protection scores globally. Like the carbon storage goal and habitats sub-goal the data quality for many of our habitats is poor. However, a negative trend can be deciphered in the coastal protection goal due to the declining status of coastal sea ice, which has data derived from satellite imagery.