Peer-reviewed publications by the OHI team; * indicates open access.

OHI assessments


all data and supplementary methods

Halpern et al. 2017, PLoS ONE*. Drivers and implications of change in global ocean health over the past 5 years.

Halpern et al. 2015, PLoS ONE*. Patterns and emerging trends in global ocean health. (2013 and updated 2012 global data)

Halpern et al. 2012, Nature. An index to assess the health and benefits of the global ocean. (original 2012 global data)

Best Practices

Lowndes et al. 2017, Nature Ecology & Evolution*. Our path to better science in less time using open data science tools. (website with resources and media links)

Lowndes et al. 2015, PeerJ*. Best practices for assessing ocean health in multiple contexts using tailorable frameworks.

U.S. West Coast

Halpern et al. 2014, PLoS ONE*. Assessing the health of the U.S. West Coast with a regional-scale application of the Ocean Health Index. (data)


Elfes et al. 2014, PLoS ONE*. A regional-scale Ocean Health Index for Brazil.


Selig et al. 2015, Ecosystem Services. Measuring indicators of ocean health for an island nation: The Ocean Health Index for Fiji.


Longo et al. 2017, Frontiers in Marine Science. Using the Ocean Health Index to Identify Opportunities and Challenges to Improving Southern Ocean Ecosystem Health.


O’Hara et al. 2020, PLoS ONE*. Changes in ocean health in British Columbia from 2001 to 2016.

Daigle et al. 2017, PLoS ONE*. Incorporating public priorities in the Ocean Health Index: Canada as a case study.


Burgass et al. 2018, Regional Environmental Change*. A pan-Arctic assessment of the status of marine social-ecological systems.

OHI supporting methods


Afflerbach et al. 2019, Fish and Fisheries. Quantifying uncertainty in the wild‐caught fisheries goal of the Ocean Health Index.

Anderson et al. 2017, Fish and Fisheries. Improving estimates of population status and trend with superensemble models. (datalimited R package for catch only models)

Kleisner et al. 2013, AMBIO. Exploring patterns of seafood provision revealed in the global Ocean Health Index.


O’Hara et al. 2019, Conservation Letters*. Mapping status and conservation of global at‐risk marine biodiversity.

O’Hara et al. 2017, PLoS ONE*. Aligning marine species range data to better serve science and conservation. (website with interactive figures and maps)

Selig et al. 2013, PLoS ONE*. Assessing global marine biodiversity status within a coupled socio-ecological perspective.

Cumulative Human Impacts

Halpern et al. 2019, Scientific Reports*. Recent pace of change in human impact on the world’s ocean. (data); (code)

Halpern et al. 2015, Nature Communications*. Spatial and temporal changes in cumulative human impacts on the world’s ocean. (data)

Micheli et al. 2013, PLoS ONE*. Cumulative Human Impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea Marine Ecosystems: Assessing Current Pressures and Opportunities. (website with interactive maps)

Halpern et al. 2008,* Science*. A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. (data)

Reference points

Samhouri et al. 2012, Ecosphere. Sea Sick? Setting targets to assess ocean health and ecosystem services.


Frazier et al. 2016, PLoS ONE*. Mapping Uncertainty Due to Missing Data in the Global Ocean Health Index.

Goal weighting

Daigle et al. 2016, Marine Policy. From coast to coast: Public perception of ocean-derived benefits in Canada.

Halpern et al. 2013, Marine Policy. Elicited preferences for components of ocean health in the California Current.


Jacobsen et al. 2014, Marine Policy. A global synthesis of the economic multiplier effects of marine sectors.

Marine assessments

Katona et al. 2017, OpenChannels: Forum for Ocean Planning and Management*. Navigating the seascape of ocean management: waypoints on the voyage toward sustainable use.

Borja et al. 2016, Frontiers in Marine Science*. Overview of Integrative Assessment of Marine Systems: The Ecosystem Approach in Practice.

IOC-UNESCO and UNEP 2016 Large Marine Ecosystems: Status and Trends. Nairobi. Halpern, & Frazier 2016. Chapter 7.7: Cumulative human impacts in the world’s large marine ecosystems. pp 225-237. Halpern et al. 2016. Chapter 7.8: Ocean Health Index for the world’s large marine ecosystems. pp. 239–249. Kleisner et al. 2016. Chapter 8: Identifying patterns of risk among large marine ecosystems using multiple indicators. pp 253–287.

Blasiak et al. 2016, Marine Policy. Local and regional experiences with assessing and fostering ocean health.

OHI+ documentation


OHI+ Santa Elena 2020 Final Report (in Spanish)

OHI+ Gulf of Guayaquil 2015 Final Report (in Spanish)

OHI+ Gulf of Guayaquil 2015 Goal details (in Spanish)


Tsemel et al. 2014, Ecology & Environment. D Grade for the Mediterranean- Applying the Ocean Health Index to Israel. (in Hebrew). צמל, ע., א. שיינין, וי. סוארי. 2014. ציון “מספיק בקושי” לים התיכון – התאמת מדד בריאות הים העולמי לישראל. אקולוגיה וסביבה 3: 218–222

OHI+ Israel 2014 Supplementary Information (in English)


OHI+ Ria de Vigo Artisanal Opportunity Goal Masters Thesis 2016 (in Spanish with English abstract)

New Caledonia

OHI+ New Caledonia (in French)

Hawaii — Main Hawaiian Islands

OHI+ Main Hawaiian Islands